The hottest food packaging and environmental devel

2022-10-13
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Food packaging and environmental development

Abstract: the food packaging industry has developed rapidly, and the commonly used food packaging materials include polymers, metals, paper and glass. These food packaging materials have certain pollution to the environment in the production process. Incorrect treatment methods after use and residual microorganisms in food packaging lead to further pollution to the environment. At the same time, excessive food packaging also causes great damage to environmental resources. In order to coordinate the development of food packaging industry and the environment, people should pay attention to the cleaner production of food packaging, develop green food packaging, simplify food packaging and improve environmental awareness

key words: food packaging; environment Development

the rapid development of food industry has greatly promoted the development of food packaging industry. Food packaging has made remarkable achievements in many aspects, such as appearance, material and practicality. The development of food packaging industry also makes us face a serious reality that can not be ignored: with the increasing consumption of packaged food, food packaging accounts for an increasing proportion of domestic waste, which not only increases the burden of domestic waste treatment, but also causes serious environmental pollution due to unreasonable production and post-use treatment of some food packaging

1 Types and characteristics of food packaging materials

food packaging materials refer to various materials used for food packaging in the food industry. Commonly used food packaging materials include polymers, metals, paper and glass, as well as ceramics, bamboo and various composite materials

polymer packaging materials include plastic, rubber and paint. Plastics can be divided into thermoplastic and thermosetting; Rubber can be divided into natural rubber and synthetic rubber according to the source of base material; Coatings can be divided into high-temperature film-forming coatings and normal temperature film-forming coatings according to film-forming conditions, and can be divided into epoxy resin coatings, organic fluorine coatings, organic silicon coatings, perchloroethylene coatings, urushiol coatings and paraffin coatings according to materials. Polymer materials have become extremely important food packaging materials and have been widely used because of their good barrier property, heat resistance and corrosion resistance, light weight, convenient use, colorful and beautiful appearance. The biggest disadvantage of polymer materials is that most of them are not easy to degrade, and incineration will produce toxic gases

metal packaging materials commonly used include iron, aluminum, stainless steel and various metal alloys. The metal material has high mechanical strength, which is aimed at many other cars. It is not only firm, pressure resistant and not fragile, but also has the processing characteristics of extensibility, bitability, weldability and adhesion. In addition, it has good barrier and air tightness, so it also plays an important role in food packaging materials

paper packaging materials have many advantages, such as low price, good protective performance, convenient storage and transportation, easy modeling and decoration, no pollution of contents, good recycling performance, easy to compound with other materials to further improve and improve material performance, etc. at present, it is also one of the widely used food packaging materials

glass packaging materials have good stability, barrier, sanitation and preservation, and have many advantages, such as not easy to deform, easy to seal the cover, easy to seal again after opening, easy to beautify, rich raw materials, low cost and so on

2 environmental pollution caused by the production of food packaging

the pollutants produced by the food packaging industry mainly include sulfur dioxide, chlorine, phosgene, formaldehyde, hydrogen fluoride and other gases, as well as phenols, benzene, styrene and other substances, and dust can also be produced in metal material production sites. The above substances can cause varying degrees of pollution to the atmosphere, soil and water resources

sulfur dioxide is the most important kind of atmospheric pollutants. It can be oxidized under the catalysis of metal oxides such as iron, copper and magnesium contained in atmospheric particles, and dissolved in rain and snow to produce H2SO3 and H2SO4, which makes precipitation acidic and forms acid rain, causing serious harm to air, human health and soil. Chlorine not only endangers human health, but also enters plant leaf tissue, quickly destroys the chlorophyll in the mesophyll, and causes light brown to dark brown scars on the leaves, causing the leaves to shrink, dry and fall off; In addition, because chlorine has a strong pungent smell, if it reaches a certain concentration in the air, it will have a great impact on the residential environment. What is more serious is that chlorine can form more toxic phosgene (CoCl2) in contact with carbon monoxide. Phosgene is a highly toxic gas and has an accumulation effect. Staying in an environment of 100 ~ 300mg/m3 for 15 ~ 30 seconds can cause severe poisoning and even death. Formaldehyde can coagulate protein and is genotoxic to organisms

phenol is the simplest kind of phenolic pollutants. Phenol in water is easy to be oxidized to chlorophenol by hypochlorous acid. This compound has strong irritation and has a great impact on drinking water. Copper smoke and dust produced in the mining and smelting process of copper mine can make a large amount of copper enter the air and soil, aquatic organisms can enrich copper, crops can also absorb copper in the soil through roots, some of which will eventually enter the human body through the food chain, and when copper accumulates in the human body to a certain extent, it can be harmful to the human body; Environmental pollution caused by dust in aluminum production sites is an important source of aluminum in food and drinking water. Aluminum is toxic to bones. The accumulation of aluminum in the human body will increase the excretion of phosphorus in feces. In serious cases, it can lead to phosphorus deficiency, affect the formation of bone matrix, and lead to chondrosis

3 environmental pollution caused by the use of food packaging

3.1 environmental pollution caused by the disposal of discarded food packaging

food packaging belongs to urban solid waste and is a long-term pollution source. Untreated or poorly treated food packaging will cause serious air pollution, groundwater pollution, soil pollution, etc., and will also cause land resources to be occupied by garbage and the natural landscape to be damaged. At present, the treatment methods of domestic solid waste in China mainly include sanitary landfill, composting and incineration. Among them, the treatment methods of landfill account for more than 70%, followed by high-temperature composting, accounting for about 20%, and the proportion of incineration treatment methods is very small. Although the disposal rate of garbage has increased year by year, there is still a big gap from meeting the requirements of environmental harmlessness

landfill disposal is a method of choosing suitable natural places or artificially transforming suitable places on land to cover garbage with soil layers. However, environmental protection measures, let alone environmental protection standards, have not been considered in landfills in China in recent decades. The treatment method is simple stacking of garbage and soil covering. This simple treatment method will not only provoke a large number of mosquitoes and flies in summer, which is very easy to cause the spread of diseases, but also release ammonia, stored heat sulfide and other harmful gases. According to statistics, two thirds of the cities in the country have been surrounded by garbage, which has had a negative impact on the cleanliness, beauty and hygiene of the cities

the process of using microorganisms to degrade organic matter in garbage is called composting. Some simple high-temperature composting technologies are widely used in small and medium-sized cities, but due to technical limitations, there are two main problems in the composting products of composting plants at present: first, the products are rough, and the compost is mixed with fragments such as glass and iron filings, which affects the application in farmland; Second, the content of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other nutrients in the product is low. When composting is applied alone, its yield increase benefit cannot be compared with other fertilizers, and it is lack of competitiveness

incineration is the oxidation combustion reaction between excess air and the treated garbage in the incinerator. While releasing energy, the toxic and harmful substances in the garbage are destroyed by oxidation, pyrolysis and combustion at high temperature. However, it is worrying that some street cleaners lack environmental awareness and often burn garbage in the open air. A large number of toxic gases generated by garbage are directly discharged into the air, and the burned residues are directly discarded without treatment

3.2 pollution caused by residual microorganisms in food packaging

microorganisms carried by food itself remain in food packaging waste or food residues produce qualitative changes and microorganisms due to waste not treated in time. There are 10 ~ 50 microorganisms left on the packaging of fresh food, among which Escherichia coli is the most important. There are not only many kinds of bacteria, but also a variety of physical characteristics. Whether there is oxygen or no oxygen in the environment, high or low temperature, acid or alkaline, there are bacteria suitable for this kind of environment. In the repair of the waterproof layer of high-speed railway bridge deck, bacteria can not only grow and reproduce in the environment, but also produce toxins. Some bacteria can produce spores, such as Bacillus anthracis, which can cause acute infection in humans and animals. Although the incidence rate is not high, if not treated in time, the mortality is very high. In general, Bacillus anthracis can survive in soil for more than decades

3.3 excessive packaging of food causes great damage to environmental resources

excessive packaging of food refers to excessive packaging levels, inappropriate materials, inappropriate structural design, excessive surface decoration, excessive packaging functions, and high packaging costs relative to the packaged food. It is mainly manifested in the following three types: luxury packaging, false packaging and matching packaging. For example, in recent years, there have been excessive packaging of moon cakes, tea, and nutrition products. For example, the volume of some moon cake packaging boxes is 50 times that of moon cakes, and NCC is more than one comprehensive factory. China's food packaging generally uses primary materials, and the main sources of packaging materials are wood, oil, steel, etc. These are our scarce resources. Excessive packaging seriously wastes a lot of precious resources in our country, and the massive consumption of wood and other resources directly destroys the sustainable development of the environment. In real life, the waste caused by excessive food packaging is everywhere, and the waste of resources caused by excessive food packaging is becoming more and more serious with the increasing requirements of people for food packaging. While causing a waste of resources, the excessive packaging of food has increased the production cost, making the food price far higher than the value of the commodity itself, but also beyond the affordability of consumers

$page break $4 coordinated development of food packaging industry and environment

4.1 cleaner production of food packaging

cleaner production refers to the continuous application of comprehensive environmental prevention strategies in the production process to reduce the risk of harm to the environment and human beings. Clean production should try to replace toxic and harmful raw materials with low pollution and pollution-free raw materials. At the same time, clean and efficient production processes should be adopted to transform raw materials and energy into products as much as possible, reduce the discharge of waste harmful to the environment, reuse the waste generated in the production process, and turn waste into treasure and harm into benefit. Most of the industries that produce food packaging belong to the chemical industry. As we all know, the chemical industry is a large producer of "waste water, waste gas and waste residue", so cleaner production is urgent. At present, the total amount of carbon dioxide produced and emitted by the industrial production process in the world every year exceeds 24 billion tons, of which 15 billion tons are absorbed by plants, and the net increase of 9 billion tons has become the main exhaust gas polluting the environment, endangering human living space. Global climate anomalies such as El Nino caused by greenhouse gases dominated by carbon dioxide, as well as the resulting reduction in world food production and desertification, have attracted widespread attention. Using patented technology, a Chemical Co., Ltd. in Jiangsu has put into production with an annual output of 2000 tons of aliphatic polyethylene carbonate using carbon dioxide as raw material

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